Star Spangled Banner (John Stafford Smith arranged by John Philip Sousa) uses lyrics from a poem written in
1914 by Francis Scott Key, a then 35-year-old amateur poet after seeing the
bombardment of Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Maryland, by Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake
Bay during the War of 1812.
The poem was set to the tune of a popular British drinking
song, written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a London social club. Set to Key’s poem and renamed “The
Star-Spangled Banner,” it would soon become a well-known American patriotic
song. It was recognized for official use
by the United States Navy in 1889 and the President in 1916, and was made the
national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508,
codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.
Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American
officialdom. Most prominent among them was “Hail, Columbia”
which served as the de facto national anthem from Washington’s time and through the 18th
and 19th centuries. Following
the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs would emerge to
complete for popularity at public events, among them “The Star Spangled
Pineapple Poll (Arthur Sullivan – pictured at left). The ballet Pineapple Poll is a spoof of the Gilbert and Sullivan
operettas. The plot is based upon “The
Bumboat Woman’s Story” of Gilbert’s Bab
Ballads, which was later developed by Gilbert into H.M.S. Pinafore. The story revolves around Pineapple Poll and her
colleagues who are all madly in love with the captain of the good ship H.M.S.
Hot Cross Bun. In order to gain
admittance to the ship they disguise themselves in sailor’s clothes, a fact
which is kept secret from the audience until near the end of the ballet.
to Charles MacKerras, the British composer who composed this ballet, “The score
is a patchwork quilt of tunes from most of the Gilbert and Sullivan
operas. Every bar of Pineapple Poll, even the short bridge
passages, is taken from some opera or other.
Troopers Tribunal. Henry Fillmore was
one of our most prolific composers with 256 compositions to his record and
almost 800 arrangements. He published
under various pseudonyms as well as his own name: Henry Fillmore -114; Gus
Beans – 2; Harold Bennett – 65; Ray Hall – 3; Harry Hartley – 6; Al Hayes – 57;
Will Huff – 8; and Henrietta Moore – 1.
to Herb Block, Henry got into a conflict with his father (who composed and
published liturgical music in Cincinnati)
over the kind of music that Henry was composing. Henry liked march music and said, “I will huff and puff and I will write my
own music.” Hence, the name Will Huff.
was a true free spirit. He was brought
up by a conservative family in a conservative town. When he couldn’t do as he wished, he ran away
with a circus and played trombone in the circus band. To top it all off, he married an exotic
is Troopers Tribunal (1905), although
definitely a circus style march the choice of the military term “Troopers”
rather than the show business “Troupers” was Henry’s effort to pull one “over”
on his father.
Vicktor’s Theme from The Terminal by John Williams. "The Terminal" tells the story of Viktor Navorski
(Tom Hanks), a visitor to New York from Eastern Europe, whose homeland erupts
in a fiery coup while he is in the air en route to America. Stranded at Kennedy Airport
with a passport from nowhere, he is unauthorized to actually enter the United States
and must improvise his days and nights in the terminal’s international transit
lounge until the war at home is over.
As the weeks and months stretch on, Viktor
finds the compressed universe of the terminal to be a richly complex world of
absurdity, generosity, ambition, amusement, status, serendipity and even
romance with a beautiful flight attendant named Amelia (Catherine Zeta-Jones).
But Viktor has long worn out his welcome with airport official Frank Dixon, who
considers him a bureaucratic glitch, a problem he cannot control but wants
desperately to erase.
"The Terminal" is a romantic adventure of the
human spirit. While Viktor Navorski (Tom Hanks) may be a man without a country,
he is not a man without a score, written with love and sense of Krakhozian
humor by maestro John Williams. Viktor's theme is performed by clarinetist,
Emily Bernstein, who gives Viktor a clear and profoundly moving voice
throughout his journey within the confines of an international terminal while
he waits for the visa that could finally get him into New York City and the American dream.
Some Band Rag. Frederick Alton Jewell (pictured at right), born 1875 in Worthington, Indiana,
was a prolific musical composer who wrote over 100 marches and screamers.
At the age of 16, Jewell ran away from home and joined the
Gentry Bros. Dog & Pony Show as a euphonium player. After making excellent
impressions with successful circus officials, Jewell rose through the ranks,
and eventually landed himself as the leader of the Barnum & Bailey's
Greatest Show on Earth band (coincidentally like Karl King, another successful
American composer of his time).
Jewell's circus career ended in 1917. He travels to Iowa and takes
leadership of the Iowa Brigade Band. From there he begins his own publishing
company and moves back to his hometown Worthington,
and serves as high school band director, as well as a steady composer of band
Frederick Jewell dies in 1936 at the age of 61 in Worthington.
Stepple Chase Galop by Harry J. Lincoln (pictured at
left). In all of band music history,
there is no more confusing situation than that surrounding the life and works
of the American composer, Harry J. Lincoln, and the relationships he had with other
musicians from the Williamsport, Pennsylvania, area: Charles C. Sweeley and the
Vandersloots. Many composers have used pseudonyms, but the pseudonyms were
Lincoln published music under his own name,
as well as such pseudonyms as Abe Losch. He also used the real names of
several members of the Vandersloot family on music he composed. Not all
of the compositions for which he used pseudonyms were published for band.
The confusion is compounded because he also sold some of his original
compositions to others who put their own names on the printed music.
Lincoln was born in Shamokin,
Pennsylvania, in 1878. In
addition to being a composer and arranger, he was organist and choirmaster of
the First Church of Christ and pianist and manager of the Williamsport Symphony
Orchestra. His early works were published by Vandersloot, a company which
was owned and operated by Frederick William Vandersloot. Lincoln formed his own publishing company,
the Harry J. Lincoln Music Company, ca. 1900. He sold the catalog ca.
1903 but reinstated the company ca. 1918. In 1917, he purchased another
company, the United States Music Company (of Williamsport),
and moved it to Philadelphia.
He also acquired the Vandersloot Music Publishing Company in 1929 and
moved it to Philadelphia,
retaining the same company name. He died in Philadelphia on April 9, 1937.
Lincoln composed most of his band music under
his own name. Judging by the titles, he could have been a fire buff,
because he used titles such as False Alarm, Fire Worshiper, Blaze of Honor,
Midnight Fire Alarm, and Still Alarm.
state incorrectly that Charles C. Sweeley was a pseudonym of Harry J. Lincoln.
Sweeley was a real person to whom Lincoln
apparently sold one or more pieces of music so that Sweeley could affix his
name as composer. (This is in contrast to the situation where Henry
Fillmore made use of the name Will Huff, not realizing there really was a
composer by that name. Fillmore never sold any music to Huff.).
Belle of the Ball by Leroy Anderson. Leroy Anderson first studied
music with his mother who was a church organist. He earned a bachelor of arts degree in music
at Harvard University in 1929 and a master of arts
in foreign language there the following year.
As a student, he conducted the Harvard Band from 1928 to 1930. He became a music instructor at Radcliffe College from 1930 to 1932 and returned
to Harvard as band conductor from 1932 to 1935. Later he served as a church
choir director, an organist, a conductor, and a composer whose works in the
“encore” category have few equals.” Anderson was a captain in
the U.S. Army Intelligence Corps during and after World War II.
The Andersons spent the
summer of 1946 at Painter Hill in Woodbury,
Connecticut. It was here that he
composed Sleigh Ride during a heat wave. Two years later the Andersons settled in
Woodbury permanently. Sons Rolf and Kurt were born in the early 1950's. The Andersons moved into
their new home at Grassy Hill in Woodbury in 1953. During these years Anderson wrote many of his well-loved compositions, among
them Blue Tango, The Typewriter, Serenata, Belle of the Ball, Bugler's Holiday
and Forgotten Dreams.
Arthur Fiedler continued to premier Leroy's works
including Sleigh Ride, Fiddle-Faddle and Trumpeter's Lullaby,
until 1950. After that Leroy conducted the premieres of his works when he
recorded them for Decca Records. Among these pieces were Belle of the Ball, Blue Tango, Bugler's Holiday,
Forgotten Dreams, Horse and Buggy, Plink, Plank, Plunk!, Serenata, The
Typewriter and Waltzing Cat. It was his own recording of Blue
Tango that made #1 on the Hit Parade of 1952. The popularity of Leroy
Anderson's music was rapidly spreading around the world. By 1952 Leroy had
established himself as the pre-eminent American composer of light concert
Swanee by George Gershwin.
Al Jolson's recording of George Gershwin's Swanee. Composed in 1919, Al Jolson recorded for Columbia Records
in January 1920, and it became a runaway hit.
The piece was also George Gershwin’s first real hit and the only major
song in the public domain. While the term “mammy” now has racist connotations,
at the time the piece was written, it only meant “nursemaid.”
Gershwin was born in Brooklyn in 1898, the
second of four children from a close-knit immigrant family. He began his
musical career as a song-plugger on Tin Pan Alley, but was soon writing his own
pieces. Gershwin’s first published song, “When You Want ‘Em, You Can’t Get
‘Em,” demonstrated innovative new techniques, but only earned him five dollars.
Soon after, however, he met a young lyricist named Irving Ceaser. Together they
composed a number of songs including Swanee,
which sold more than a million copies.
Battle of Shiloh by C.L. Barnhouse. Having been born during the last year of the
American Civil War, Barnhouse personally knew many of the veterans and
surviving family members of that disastrous conflict. The battle of Shiloh, with huge military blunders on both sides, turned
out to be the first of the large battles and, by far, the bloodiest of the
Civil War. There were over 19,000 casualties from both sides in the two-day
battle. The name comes from the Shiloh
Church, a meeting house southwest of
the community of Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee.
On Sunday, April 6, 1862, Confederate General A.S. Johnston made a daring,
surprise attack, routing the Union troops commanded by the then unknown Union
General Ulysses S. Grant. Johnston's
death and the arrival of Union reinforcements under General D.C. Buel forced
the retreat of the southern forces.
It was the mid-1800's when C. L.''Charley'' Barnhouse,
an 18 year old self-taught cornet player, left his West Virginia home and joined the band on
one of the many small musical comedy road shows of the day. His travels ended
in Iowa where he worked as a machinist and
directed bands in a number of Southern Iowa
towns. In addition, he composed music for band with aspirations of publishing
his own music; in 1886, the C. L. Barnhouse Co. was founded. He began his
catalog by writing most of the music himself. From his prolific pen flowed
wonderful marches, waltzes, rags, and concert numbers which were very popular
with the community bands of the day. Now, Mr. Barnhouse is remembered for the
publishing business he founded, but we are fortunate that through the
re-publication of several of his best-known marches, the genius of this pioneer
in the band business is being rediscovered. In the early years, Barnhouse
called his publishing business HARMONY HEAVEN, and later wrote a march by the
12th Street Rag by
E.L. Bowman. Euday Louis Bowman was born
on November 9, 1887, in Fort Worth,
Texas. He is famous as the
composer of The Twelfth Street Rag, which he published at his own expense in
1914. It became extremely popular, and more than 120 versions were
recorded on 78 R.P.M. records. It still ranks as one of the most popular
of all rags. Bowman is believed to have worked as a pianist in Fort Worth at one time.
He died in New York City
on May 26, 1949.
12th Street Rag (rag) was copyrighted in 1914 and
1941 by Euday L. Bowman; copyrighted in 1917 by J.W. Jenkins Sons Music
Company, and later assigned to Shapiro, Bernstein & Company.
Lassus Trombone by Henry Fillmore. The characteristic carried the subtitle “De Cullud
Valet to Miss Trombone” and was Henry’s favorite of this “trombone
smears.” It was also recognized by John
Philip Sousa, who included it on every concert of his last tour with his
band. The sheet music to Lassus Trombone sold over two million
southern United States,
there is a food substance which may be largely unknown in other regions, called
molasses. This is a thick, pungent,
sugary syrup, usually a by-product of the process of extracting sugar from
sugar cane. The syrup is thick under any
circumstances, and much more so when it is cold. A favorite saying in this part of the world
is “slow as molasses in January.” In the
southern dialects, the first syllable is sometimes elided, producing
“’lasses.” This might be the origin of
the “Lassus” in Lassus Trombone. In this sense, it would refer to the slides
and glissandos (smears) which are required of the trombonists who perform
Semper Fidelis by John Philip Sousa. This march
takes its title from the motto of the United States Marine Corps - “Semper Fidelis” - Always Faithful. The
trio is an extension of an earlier Sousa composition, “With Steady Step,” one of eight brief trumpet and drum pieces he
wrote for The Trumpet and Drum (1886). it was dedicated to those who inspired it --
the officers and men of the United States Marine Corps.
The Marines Hymn. The "Marines' Hymn" is the official hymn of the United States Marine Corps. It is the oldest official song in the United States military. The "Marines' Hymn" is typically sung at the position of attention as a gesture of respect. However, the third verse is also used as a toast during formal events, such as the birthday ball and other ceremonies.
Some of the lyrics were
popular phrases before the song was written. The line "To the shores of Tripoli" refer to
the First Barbary War, and specifically the Battle of Derne in 1805. After
Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon and his Marines hoisted the American flag over the Old World for the first time, the phrase was added to the
battle colors of the Corps. "The Halls of Montezuma" refers to the
Battle of Chapultepec, during the Mexican-American War, where a force of
Marines stormed Chapultepec
While the words date from
the 19th century, the author of the song itself is unknown. Anecdotal evidence
supposes it was penned by a Marine on duty in Mexico. The unknown author
transposed the phrases in the motto on the Colors so that the first two lines of
the Hymn would read: "From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of
Tripoli," favoring euphony over chronology. The music is from the Gendarmes' Duet
from the opera Geneviève de Brabant by Jacques Offenbach, which debuted
in Paris in
Stars and Stripes Forever (John Philip Sousa) The march is considered the finest march ever written, and at the
same time one of the most patriotic ever conceived. As reported in the Philadelphia Public Ledger (May 15, 1897) “ ... It is stirring enough to rouse the American eagle from his crag,
and set him to shriek exultantly while he hurls his arrows at the aurora
borealis.” (referring to the concert
the Sousa Band gave the previous day at the Academy of Music).
The march was not quite so well received though and actually
got an over average rating for a new Sousa march. Yet, its popularity grew as Mr. Sousa used it
during the Spanish-American War as a concert closer. Coupled with his Trooping of the Colors , the march quickly gained a vigorous
response from audiences and critics alike.
In fact, audiences rose from their chairs when the march was
played. Mr. Sousa added to the
entertainment value of the march by having the piccolo(s) line up in front of
the band for the final trio, and then added the trumpets and trombones join
them on the final repeat of the strain.
The march was performed on almost all of Mr. Sousa’s
concerts and always drew tears to the eyes of the audience. The author has noted the same emotional
response of audiences to the march today.
The march has been named as the national march of The United States.
There are two commentaries of how the march was
inspired. The first came as the result
of an interview on Mr. Sousa’s patriotism.
According to Mr. Sousa, the march was written with the inspiration of
“I was in Europe and
I got a cablegram that my manager was dead.
I was in Italy and I
wished to get home as soon as possible, I rushed to Genoa,
then to Paris and to England
and sailed for America. On board the steamer as I walked miles up and
down the deck, back and forth, a mental band was playing ‘Stars and Stripes
Forever.’ Day after day as I walked it
persisted in crashing into my very soul. I wrote it on Christmas Day, 1896.”
The second, and more probable inspiration for the march,
came from Mr. Sousa’s own homesickness.
He had been away from his homeland for some time on tour, and told an
“In a kind of dreamy way, I used to think over old
days at Washington when I was leader of the Marine Band ... when we played at all
public functions, and I could see the Stars and Stripes flying from the
flagstaff in the grounds of the White House just as plainly as if I were back
“Then I began to think of all the countries I had
visited, of the foreign people I had met, of the vast differences between
America and American people and other countries and other peoples, and that
flag our ours became glorified ... and to my imagination it seemed to be the
biggest, grandest, flag in the world, and I could not get back under it quick
“It was in this impatient, fretful state of mind that
the inspiration to compose ‘The Stars and Stripes Forever’ came to me.”
God Bless America. In 1918, Irving
Berlin (pictured at left) produced Yip, Yip Yaphank, an all-soldier
show at Camp Yaphank. God Bless America was
one of the songs in that show, but Berlin
decided to delete it from the production. In 1938, Kate Smith asked Berlin to write a song
for her to use in her Armistice Day radio show. Unable to write anything that
satisfied him, he remembered the song from Yip, Yip Yaphank and gave
her, free of charge, exclusive performing rights. She first performed it on her
radio show on November 10, 1938, the last peacetime Armistice Day this country
celebrated before World War II.
In 1939, both
major political parties used God Bless America in their Presidential
nominating conventions. Kate Smith recorded the song for Columbia and it became immensely popular. It
was heard or sung at rallies, balls, and athletic events nationwide.
Berlin was a passionate patriot and did
not want to profit from this patriotic song. In 1939 he copyrighted it in the
names of Gene Tunney, Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., and A. L. Berman and
stipulated that all proceeds go to the Boy and Girl Scouts.
and reverent song represents the thoughts of the multitudes of immigrants such
as Berlin, himself, who were grateful to this country for giving them the
opportunity to transcend the limitations of their old world origins.
Baline, the son of a Jewish cantor, immigrated to the United States from Russia with his family in 1893.
Here, he spent his early years in great poverty. In 1904, he worked as a
singing waiter in Chinatown and Bowery cabarets of New York City. After a printer erroneously
printed his name "Irving Berlin" on a piece of music, he chose that
name for his own. In 1911, he achieved success pioneering ragtime with Alexander's
Ragtime Band (originally titled Alexander and his Clarinet) and Everybody's
Program – Friday, June 25th, 2010
Spangled Banner.............................. Francis
Scott Key/John Philip
Poll – Poll’s Dance (1870)................. Arthur
Triumphal (1905).......................................................... Henry
Theme (2004)....................................................... John
Catherine Palcza, soloist
Band Rag (1915)................................................................. Fred
Chase (1914) ................................................ Harry
J. Lincoln/F.H. Losey
of the Ball (1951)............................................................... Leroy
March, Battle of Shiloh (1928)................................................................ C.L.
Street Rag (1914)........................................... E.L.
Trombone (1915)................................................... Henry
Fidelis (1888)............................................................. John
Hymn (1891)............................................................................. Loock
March, The Stars and Stripes Forever (1897).......................... John Philip Sousa
Final as of May 17, 2010